Classical Conditioning

Operant Conditioning

Learning by Observation

Terminology

100

True or false: behaviourists believe that psychology should be a science without reference to mental processes.

True

200

Define respondent conditioning

Classical conditioning. A type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli, A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditional stimulus. Also called Pavlovian conditioning

300

____________ is the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus

Conditioned response

400

Define and provide an example of generalization and discrimination

Generalization: The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned response to elicit a similar response. Ex. A child taught to avoid moving cars also avoid trucks and motorcycles. 

Discrimination: The learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned response. Ex. Fearing only one type of dog breed.

500

Define backward conditioning

Backward conditioning (also known as backward pairing) is a behaviour conditioning method in which the unconditioned stimulus (US) is presented before a neutral stimulus (NS).

100

True or false: a secondary reinforcer is a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer

True

200

After answering the question correctly, the student is given a candy. What kind of reinforcement is this?

Positive reinforcement

300

Slot-machine gamblers are on which type of schedule?

Variable-ratio

400

Provide an example of a positive reinforcement, positive punishment, negative punishment and a negative reinforcement 

Positive reinforcement: Anything given to the subject that strengthens the behaviour

Positive punishment: Anything given to the subject that decreases behaviour.

Negative reinforcement: Anything taken away from the subject that strengthens the behaviour

Negative punishment: Anything taken away from the subject that decreases the behaviour

500

Which psychologist is credited with creating the principles of operant conditioning?

Edward Thorndike

100

True or false: the opposite of antisocial behaviour is called prosocial behaviour

True

200

__________ are frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so.

Mirror neurons

300

Describe the findings of the Bobo doll experiment

We are likely to imitate actions that go unpunished. Also, we tend to imitate models we perceive as similar to us successful or admirable.

400

Describe the function of mirror neurons in observational learning

Mirror neurons fire when we perform certain actions, such as responding to pain or moving our mouths to form words, or when we observe someone else performing those actions.

500

John has parents and older friends who smoke, but they consistently warn him against it. Jonah's parents and friends don't smoke, but they do nothing to deter him from doing so. Which boy is more likely to start smoking?

Generally, John would be more likely.

100

True or false: fixed ratio schedules reinforce behaviour after a set number of responses

True

200

__________ is a relatively permanent change to an organism's behaviour due to experience

Learning

300

Cultural elements, such as ideas, fashion and habits that travel by imitation are called __________

Memes

400

Define variable-interval schedule

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.

500

Define intermittent reinforcement and explain how it affects acquisition compared to continuous reinforcement.

The reinforcement of a response only part of the time; compared to continuous reinforcement, it results in slower acquisition.

Game Settings

Aesthetic

Utilities

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